A NEW SPECIES OF CHALARA (CORDA) RABENHORST FROM BANGLADESH
Shamim Shamsi and Razia Sultana. 2012. A new species Of Chalara (Corda) Rabenhorst from Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol. 28(1&2):71-73. A species of the genus Chalara sharminensis was recorded from dried stem of jute. Conidiophores of C. sharminensis were frequently associated with pycnidia of Diplodina sp. The fungus was tried to isolate following “Tissue planting” method on potato dextrose agar medium. The fungus did not produce any mycelia on the culture medium. This is the first report of the fungal genus from Bangladesh.
Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) is one of the important cash crops of Bangladesh. Many fungi are associated with jute plants and cause diseases of the crop. Recently, a fungus under the genus Chalara was found to be associated with dried stems of jute as a saprophyte. Morphological characters of the fungus were recorded and compared with characteristics of 131 species and subspecies of Chalara so far identified throughout the world (Ellis 1971, 1976, 1989, Nag Raj et al. 1973, 1974, Carris 1988, Kowaski 2006). The characteristics of the new fungus were different from those of the previously identified species of Chalara. Conidial width of newly recoded fungus was 8-13 µm which is double the largest conidial width (3-5 µm) of C. schoenoplecti M.K.M. Wong. sp. nov. It indicates that the newly recorded fungus is a new species of Chalara and it was named as Chalara sharminensis sp. Nov (Plates 1, 2 and 3). Shamsi et Sultana. The identification was confirmed by The Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England. The taxonomical enumeration of the fungus is given below:
Genus: Chalara (Corda) Rabenhorst, 1844, Krypt.-F1., 1: 38.
Colonies effuse, grey, olive brown or black, hairy or velvety. Mycelium is immersed or superficial. Stroma, setae and hyphopodia are absent. Conidiophores are macronematous, mononemetous, straight or slightly flexuous, unbranched, brown and smooth. Conidiogenous cells are monophialidic, integrated, terminal, usually determinate, occasionally percurrent, cylindrical or lageniform. Conidia are catenate, endogenous, cylindrical or oblong with truncate ends, usually colorless but sometimes brown, 0-3 septate, smooth or with the ends verruculose (Ellis 1971).
Type: Chalara fusidioides (Corda) Rabenhorst.
Ellis, M.B., Mycol. Pap., 79: 20-22, 1961.
Henry, B.W., Phytopathology, 34: 631-635, 1944.
Nag Raj, T.R. A monograph of the genus Chalara, in preparation.
Distribution: Australia, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and U.S.A.
Chalara sharminensis Shamsi et Sultana sp. nov. (Plates I and II).
Colonium is effusus, latus expanus, cinerascens, puberulus, conidiophora coloniae atrobrunneus, oriens singularis seu perus aggregatae, inramusus knobby 62-171 × 10.8-15.4 (18) μm phyalidi hyalinus,18.9 -79.2 × 9.5 – 13.5 μm. Conidia endogena, catenam, hyalinus, laevis, 1-2 septatus/septalis subinde 3 septalis, cylindrdricum ambo extrima truncata 15-72 (112.6) × 8-13 μm extremaadest specimine similitudo Chalara. Adest specimine similitudo Chalara schoenoplccti (3-5 μm) affinis, sed differt grandis conidial latitudo.
Colony is effuse, wide spreading, grayish, hairy, Conidiophores dark brown, arising singly or in small groups, unbranched, nodose, 62-171 × 10.8- 15.4 (18) µm. Phalides 18.9-79.2 × 9.5-13.5 µm. Conidia catenate, hyaline, smooth, mostly 1-2 septate (rarely 3 septate), cylindrical with truncate ends, 15-72 (112.6) × 8-13 µm. Present specimen allied to Chalara schoenoplccti (3-5 µm) but differs in having larger conidial width (Plates 1, 2 and 3).
Holotypus: On dried stem of Corchorus capsularis L. (Tiliaceae), Botanical Research Garden, Curzon Hall, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2 December 2007, Shamsi 2071. Shamim Shamsi SS22. The specific epithet has been given after the name of first author late daughter Tamanna Sharmin.
The authors are grateful to Prof. Md. Abul Hassan, Chairman, Department of Botany, University of Dhaka for providing all laboratory facilities for carrying out the present work. The authors also wish to express their gratitude and thanks to Prof. A.Z.M. Nowsher A. Khan and Prof. M.R. Khan of the same department for their cooperation, suggestions and encouragement during the tenure of research. Special thanks and gratitude are due for Dr. Mahbuba Khanam, Director in charge National Harberium Bangladesh for helping in Latin diagnosis and to Dr. Paul Kirk, CABI UK Centre (Egham), UK for confirmation of the genus.
Carris, L. M. 1988. Chalara vaccinii sp. nov., A vaccinium Endophyte. Mycologia 80(6), Mycological Society of America. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458, pp. 875-879.