APPLICATION OF ORGANIC AMENDMENT AND FURADAN 5G FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE OF CUCUMBER
Momotaz, R. Islam, M. E. Ali, and S. S. Siddique. 2012. Application of organic amendment and Furadan 5G for the management of root-knot nematode of cucumber. Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol. 28 (1&2):19-23.
Efficacy of seven different treatments with poultry refuse (PR), mustard oilcake (MOC), Trichoderma harzianum based compost (TZ) and Furadan 5G alone, and application of three organic materials combined with Furadan 5G were tested for the management of root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita) of cucumber. The experiments were conducted during three consecutive years. All treatments considerably reduced root-knot severity and increased plant growth as well as yield. The highest reduction in root-knot severity was obtained with Furadan+MOC (81.33%) followed by Furadan+PR (76.52%), Furadan 5G alone (54.60), PR alone (67.89) and MOC alone (63.08). The maximum shoot growth was obtained with Furadan+MOC (41.38%) followed by Furadan+PR (38.87%), Furadan 5G alone (27.54) and PR alone (21.32). The highest yield increase was obtained with Furadan+MOC followed by Furadan+PR, Furadan 5G alone, MOC alone, PR alone, Furadan 5G+TZ and TZ alone. The treatments gave 127.98, 103.40, 64.47, 43.06, 33.09, 27.00 and 22.62% yield increase over control, respectively. Considering control of root-knot and increase in plant growth and yield, the treatments, Furadan 5G+ mustard oilcake, Furadan 5G+ poultry refuse and Furadan alone may be recommended for the control of the disease.
In Bangladesh, cucumber (Cucumber sativa) is an important vegetable and salad crop. It is grown round the year. The crop is attacked by different diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Among the nemic diseases, root-knot caused by Meloidogyne incognita is widely distributed throughout the country and causes severe damage to the crop. Different researchers demonstrated that nematicides, organic amendments and plant extracts are effective to control root-knot disease (Hossain et al. 1989, 2003, Ahmed and Karim 1991, Faruk et al. 2003). Efficacy of organic amendments to soil against the nematode has been demonstrated by many investigators (Muller and Gooch 1982, Chiado and Khan 1990, Wahundeniya 1991). Furadan 5G (Carbofuran) is a common insecticide with nematicidal properties. The pesticide is effective to control root-knot nematodes and to increase plant growth as well as crop yield (Hossain et al. 1989, 2003, Khan 1996). Application of nematicidal chemicals in combination with organic amendments to soil enhances their effectiveness to reduce the nematode populations in soil and to improve soil physical properties and plant growth (Hussain and Khan 1988). Information regarding combined effect of nematicide and organic amendments to soil on the severity of root-knot nematode in cucumber is not available in the country. Considering the above facts, the present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three organic amendments and a nematicide applied in different combinations in an integrated management approaches against root-knot nematode of cucumber.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The nematicide was Furadan 5G and the organic amendments were Poultry refuse (PR), Mustard oilcake (MOC) and Trichoderma harzianum (TZ). The materials were applied @ 45 kg, and 10 ton, 800 kg, 10 ton per hectare, respectively in 7 different combinations representing 7 treatments. The treatments were Poultry refuse alone, Mustard oilcake alone, Furadan 5G alone, Trichoderma harzianum alone, Furadan 5G + PR, Furadan 5G + MOC, and Furadan 5G + TZ. An additional treatment was maintained where no materials were applied, which served as control. In case of combined application, PR, MOC, Furadan 5G and TZ based compost were applied @ 5 ton/ha, 400 kg/ha, 22.5 kg/ha and 7 g/pits, respectively. The PR and MOC were incorporated with soil at 21 and 15 days, before transplanting of cucumber seedlings; whereas Furadan 5 G and T. harzianum were added to the soil at the time of transplanting.
The experiment was conducted under field conditions during three consecutive years (2008-2010) in the research farm of BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur. Unit plot size was 3.0 m x 2.5 m. Four pits were dig out in each plot and 21 days old healthy cucumber seedlings of a local variety were transplanted in the pit at two seedlings per pit. There were 8 seedlings per plots. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. After establishment of seedlings, severely galled roots of cucumber were collected from a sick bed of nematode and were chopped into small pieces. Two grams of chopped roots was incorporated with soils near the base of transplanted seedling. Irrigation and intercultural operation were done as and when necessary.
The plants were allowed to grow for 20 days. At the end of the growing period, 50% plants were uprooted from the field carefully to minimize the damage of roots. The root systems were washed under running tap water and data on length and weight of shoot and root were recorded. The number of galls per gram of roots and yield contributing characters were also recorded. The degree of root galling was indexed on a 0-10 scale (Zeck 1971), where 0 represented roots free from gall and 10 represents severely galled root system. The data were analyzed statistically for ANOVA and means were compared following Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Gall index and Gall number
Gall index values were 6.46, 7.65 and 7.10 under control in 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. Application of different treatments reduced the parameter by 1.46-3.36, 1.21-3.45, 1.31-3.42% over control. The reduction was significant under all treatments. Every year, the maximum reduction was achieved with Furadan 5G+MOC, which was statistically similar to Furadan 5G+PR, MOC alone and PR alone. The least effective treatment was TZ based compost alone which was not significantly different from Furadan 5G+TZ, Furadan 5G alone, MOC alone and PR alone. Maximum of 88.76, 91.14 and 91.00 galls per gram roots were recorded from control in 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. Every year, all treatments gave significant reduction in that parameter. Treatments with PR alone, MOC alone, Furadan 5G alone, TZ alone, Furadan 5G+PR, Furadan 5G+MOC and Furadan 5G+TZ caused respectively 62.95, 61.28, 50.35, 39.44, 66.61, 67.51 and 47.88% reduction in gall number over control (Table 1).
Under different treatments, average shoot length of cucumber plants ranged 590.0-800.0, 520.0-750.0 and 560.0-810.0 cm per plant during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. Every year, the lowest shoot length was recorded from plants grown in control plots, which was statistically similar to Furadan+TZ, TZ alone and MOC alone. Other treatments gave significant increase in shoot length over control. The highest shoot length was achieved with Furadan+MOC, which was statistically similar to Furadan+PR and Furadan alone (Table 1).
On 20th day of planting, average shoot weight of cucumber plants under control were 650.0, 753.3 and 615.0 g/plant during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. Every year, the shoot weight increased over control due to different treatments. However, the increase was significant under the treatments with Furadan 5G+MOC, Furadan 5G+PR and PR alone in the first year and under all treatments in second and third years. In 2007-08 and 2008-09, the heaviest shoot was obtained with Furadan 5G+MOC, which was statistically similar to Furadan 5G+PR and PR alone. In third year, maximum shoot weight was also obtained with Furadan 5G+MOC followed by Furadan 5G+PR. Their difference was not significant (Table 2).
Every year, all of the treatments caused considerable increase in root length. In 2007-2008 and 2008-09, the root length recorded from the treatments with PR as well as MOC alone and their mixed application with Furadan 5G was statistically similar but significantly higher compared to control. In 2009-2010, Furadan 5G+PR and Furadan 5G+MOC gave significantly increase in the parameter (Table 3).
Every year, the lowest root weight was recorded from control, which was statistically similar to the treatments with Furadan+TZ, TZ alone and Furadan 5G alone. Root weight obtained with Furadan+PR and Furadan+MOC was statistically similar but significantly higher compared control and other treatments. During 2009-10, efficacy of PR and MOC alone to increase root weight was statistically similar but significantly higher compared to control and other treatments which received TZ (Table 3).
Number of fruit per plot ranged 26.00-43.33, 22.10-39.65 and 21.00-43.35 in first, second and third years, respectively. Every year the lowest number of fruits was recorded from control plot, which was statistically similar to the treatments with MOC and TZ alone. The highest fruit number per plot was obtained with Furadan 5G+MOC followed by Furadan 5G+PR. Efficacy of two treatments to increase fruit setting was statistically similar but significantly higher compared to control. Significant increase over control in fruit setting was also obtained with PR alone in first and second year and with Furadan 5G alone and Furadan 5G + TZ in second year (Table 4).
The fruit yield of 4.35, 3.65 and 4.35 tons per hectare was found in control plots during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. The highest fruit yield of 9.55, 8.61 and 9.52 t/ha was obtained with Furadan 5G+MOC in those three consecutive years, respectively. However, the yield obtained with Furadan 5G+PR and Furadan+MOC was statistically similar but significantly higher compared to control. The highest average yield increase over control was obtained with Furadan+MOC followed by Furadan+PR, Furadan 5G alone, MOC alone, PR alone, Furadan 5G+TZ and TZ alone. The treatments gave 127.98, 103.40, 64.47, 43.06, 33.09, 27.00 and 22.62% yield increase over control, respectively (Table 4).
Results of the present study reveal that poultry refuse, mustard oilcake, T. harzianum based compost and Furadan 5G alone, and application of the organic materials mixed with Furadan 5G are effective to control root-knot disease and to increase plant growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The maximum decrease in root-knot severity and increase in plant growth were achieved with Furadan 5G+MOC followed by Furadan 5G+PR and Furadan 5G alone. The results indicate that combined application of PR and MOC with Furadan are better than other treatments. Similar observations have been documented by many other researchers (Mian and Rodriguez-kabana 1982, Muller and Gooch 1982, Marull et al .1997, Faruk et al.2001, Hossain et al. 2003, Bari et al. 2004). Effectiveness of Furadan 5G and organic amendments to control root-knot has also been reported by Khan (1996), Hossain et al. (1989, 2003), Faruk et al. (2003), Bari et al. (2004) and Hossain et al. (2003).
Based on findings of the present investigation it may be concluded that pre plant soil treatment with mustard oilcake and poultry refuse may be recommended to control root-knot of cucumber. However, their efficacy can be improved considerably if two organic amendments are applied mixed with Furadan 5G.
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