EFFICACY OF GRANULAR FORMULATIONS OF CARBOFURAN TO CONTROL UFRA DISEASE (DITYLENCHUS ANGUSTUS) OF RICE
H. Mian and Nurjahan Khatun. 2012. Efficacy of granular formulations of carbofuran to control ufra disease (Ditylenchus angustus) of rice. Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol. 28 (1&2): 41-46.
Five experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of five granular formulations of Carbofuran namely Brifuran 5G, Cemifuran 5G, Curatarr 5G, Edfuran 5G and Furadan 5G against Ufra disease of rice (Ditylenchus angustus) under inoculated conditions. An Ufra susceptible rice variety (BR-3) was used in the experiments. Ufra infected stem pieces of rice were used as inocula. In first experiment, Brifuran 5G, Cemifuran 5G, Curatarr 5G and Furadan 5G (@ 15 kg/ha) were tested against Ufra disease of rice seedlings and found that the nematicides gave respectively 36.23, 41.71, 52.33 and 66.99% reduction in infestation of rice seedlings over control. In subsequent experiment, Brifuran was dropped because of its lowest efficacy and Edfuran 5G was included. In second and third experiments, Cemifuran 5G, Curatarr 5G, Edfuran 5G and Furadan 5G were tested against Ufra disease of rice under pot and field conditions. In pot experiment, the nematicides caused 35.25-76.76, 11.16 - 62.29 and 64.19 – 76.63% reduction in incidence of UI, UII and UIII over control. They also gave significant control of the disease under field conditions. Among the nematicides, Furadan 5G was the most effective one. Two more experiments were conducted under pot and field conditions to find out the influence of different levels of Ufra infected rice seedlings (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) on the efficacy of Furadan 5G against the desease. It was found that treatment of soil with Furadan 5G caused significant reduction in incidence of Ufra and increase in grain yield as compared to control in both pot and field experiments. The efficacy of the nematicide was better when the crop was planted with lower levels of infected seedlings and even at 100% infected seedlings the nematicide was effective to control the disease.
Ufra disease of rice caused by Ditylenchus angustus was first reported from Naokhali district of Bangladesh (the then East Bengal) over 100 years ago (Butler 1913). Locally, the disease was referred as ‘Dak pora’, as symptoms of damage look like burn due to thunder strike. The disease first appeared in deep water rice of a farmer named ‘Uftur Rahman’. So, the disease was named as Ufra after the name of the farmer. Ufra is a major disease of rice in Bangladesh causing severe crop damage. Earlier, it was found to attack only deep water rice. Now-a-days it attacks rice plant in any growing seasons (‘Aus’, ‘Aman’ and ‘Boro’), when rice is cultivated under standing water (Bakr 1977, Rahman et al. 1981). The disease was reported to cause 1.26 t/ha yield loss but total crop failure is not unlikely (Miah and Bakr 1977, Mondal et al. 1989).
If farmers go for planting a second rice crop without taking any protective measure, nematode population builds up and destroys the second crop. Resistant varieties of rice against Ufra are not available. Application of chemical nematicides is a dependable and effective method to control of the disease. Formulated products of Carbofuran, Phanamiphos and Isazophos are recommended for control Ufra (Rahman et al. 1992, Salim Miah et al. 2003, Latif et al. 2013). Rahman and Miah (1991) found that application of Carbofuran reduced Ufra infestation by 37% in transplanted rice and by 58% in broadcast Aman rice. Application of two sprays with Carbosulfan 40 EC at 0.2% followed by 2 sprays with Triazophos 40 EC at 0.2% reduced Ufra infestation appreciably (Deb Anand Das, 2004). Use of Furadan 5G, Arodhan 5G and Biestern 5G @ 1.0 kg a.i/ha was effective to control Ufra and increase rice yield (Latif et al. 2013). Application of nematicides was effective to produce Ufra free rice seedlings and to reduce 99% disease incidence. The efficacy of nematicide may be influenced by the levels of Ufra infestation in the field at the time of application. Considering the above facts the present investigation was conducted to find out the efficacy of five formulated products of Carbofuran to control Ufra disease of rice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials used: Five granular formulations of Carbofuran namely Brifuran 5G, Cemifuran 5G, Curatarr 5G, Edfuran 3G and Furadan 5G were evaluated for their nematicidal value to control Ufra disease (D. angustus) of rice under inoculated conditions. Pieces of Ufra infected rice stems were used as inocula and base inoculation technique (Rahman 1993) was followed. Three pot and two field experiments were conducted and an Ufra susceptible rice variety BR 11 was used. In pot experiment, earthen pots (25 cm diameter and 25 cm height) were filled with steam sterilized sandy loam soil at 8 kg soil per pot. Recommended doses of fertilizers were added to the pots and thoroughly mixed with the soil.
Experiment-1: The first experiment was conducted in pots to find out the efficacy of Cemifuran 5G, Curatarr 5G, Edfuran 3G and Furadan 5G to control Ufra disease of rice seedling. Rice seeds (BR 11) were planted in the pots. From 3rd day of germination 2-3 cm water was maintained. Nine days after germination the seedlings were inoculated with Ufra infected rice stem pieces. After ten days of inoculation, the pots were treated with each of the selected nematicides at 15 kg formulated product per hectare. Thirty days after application of nematicides, incidence of Ufra infected seedlings was recorded and the results were expressed in percentage based on total number of seedlings checked.
Experiment-2 & 3: Second and third experiments were conducted under pot and field conditions, respectively to find out the efficacy of Cemifuran 5G, Curatarr 5G, Edfuran 3G and Furadan 5G to control Ufra disease of rice. In pot experiment, pot soil was treated with the nematicides at the rate of 15 kg formulated product per hectare just before transplanting. In field experiment, the experimental field was divided into 3 blocks with 1m wide drain between the blocks. Each block was divided into 5 unit plots (2 m X 2 m) maintaining 1m space between plots. Both pot and field soils were treated with the nematicides @ 15kg/ha. Thirty days old rice seedling infected with Ufra were transplanted just after application of nematicides. Each pot received 4 seedlings and the seedlings were transplanted in the field at one seedling per hill maintaining 20 cm X 20 cm plant to plant and row to row spacing. In the field experiment, appropriate measures were taken to restrict the movement of nematode from one plot to another with water flow. The plants were allowed to grow providing recommended doses of fertilizers, cultural and intercultural operations. At ripening stage, data on the severity of Ufra disease were recorded following standard procedures (Cox 1980).
Experiment-4 & 5: Fourth and fifth experiments were conducted to find out the influence of level of Ufra incidence in rice seedlings on the efficacy of nematicides to control the disease under pot and field conditions, respectively. Based on findings of the present study and considering its availability in Bangladesh Furadan 5G was selected as test nematicide. Soils, pots, experimental field and procedures of experimentation were more or less similar as mentioned under Experiments 2 and 3. Ufra infected and Ufra free rice seedlings were grown under controlled conditions. Soils of the pots as well as experimental plots were treated with Furadan 5G @ 15 kg/ha. Healthy and Ufra infected rice seedlings were mixed to have 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% level of infected seedlings. Just after treatment of soil, the seedlings were transplanted in the pots at 4 seedlings per pot and in unit plot. The plants were allowed to grow providing necessary fertilizers, cultural and intercultural operations.
Design of experiment and data collection: Design of pot experiment was completely randomized and that of field experiment was randomized complete block with four replications. Control treatments received no nematicide (Control-1). One additional control (Control-2) was maintained in second and third experiments where 100% healthy seedlings were transplanted without any nematicide. At ripening stage, data on Ufra incidence were recorded following a standard method (Cox 1980). The panicles were grouped into three categories viz. Ufra I = fully enclosed panicles within the leaf sheaths (UI), Ufra II – partially enclosed panicles with few grains (UII), and Ufra III – complete emergence of panicles (UIII) (Cox 1980). Grain yield per pot was determined after harvest, threshing and adjustment of moisture content at 14% by sun drying. The data were analyzed using MSTAT-C.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Experimet-1: Efficacy of nematicide to control Ufra disease of rice seedling
Maximum of 6.21% Ufra infected seedlings were recorded from control pots, where inoculum of D. angustus was used but no nematicide was applied. Application of all nematicides gave significant reduction in the incidence of Ufra disease of rice seedlings compared to control. The reduction was 36.23, 41.71, 52.33 and 66.99% under Cemifuran 5G, Furadan 5G, Curatarr 5G and Brifuran 5G, respectively compared to control (Table 1).
Experiment-2&3: Efficacy of nematicide to control Ufra of rice under pot culture and field conditions
In pots planted with healthy seedlings (control-2) were free from Ufra disease. In pots planted with seedlings infected with D. angustus and in which no nematicide was applied (control-1), the incidence of UI, UII and UIII was 20.21, 21.23 and 55.23%, respectively. Application of Cemifuran 5G, Curatarr 5G, Edfuran 3G and Furadan 5G caused 35.25-76.76, 11.16 – 62.29 and 64.19 – 76.63% reduction in UI, UII and UIII, respectively over control-1. The rates of reduction of UI over control achieved with four nematicides were not significant. Significant reduction of UII was achieved with only Cemifuran 5G compared to control-1. All nematicides gave significant reduction in incidence of UIII. The highest reduction was obtained with Cemifuran 5G. However, efficacy of all nematicides to reduce Ufra incidence was statistically similar (Table 2).
Maximum tiller height of 57.40 cm was recorded from the pots planted with healthy seedlings and no nematicide was applied (contrl-2). The lowest tiller height of 38.20 cm was recorded from pots planted with infected seedlings but not treated with any nematicide (control-1). The tiller height increased to 47.25-56.50 cm in pots received infected seedling but treated with four nematicides. Maximum increase in tiller height was achieved with Cemifuran 5G followed by Curatarr 5G. The effectiveness of all nematicides tested was similar to the control-2, where 100% healthy seedlings (0% infected seedlings) were used (Table 2). The incidence of Ufra disease was not found in plots where 100% healthy seedlings were transplanted. In plots transplanted with infected seedlings but no nematicide was applied (control-1), the incidence of UI, UII and UIII was 40.16, 29.17 and 18.99%, respectively. Treatment of soil with four nematicides caused appreciable reduction in the incidence of all three categories of Ufra. Furadan 5G caused significant reduction in UI and UII, whereas Curatarr 5G and Edfuran 5G gave significant reduction in UII and UIII as compared to control-1. Only Cemifuran 5G significantly reduced the incidence of UI, UII, UIII compared to control-1 (Table 3).
The incidence of Ufra disease was not found in plots where 100% healthy seedlings were transplanted. In plots transplanted with infected seedlings but no nematicide was applied (control-1), the incidence of UI, UII and UIII was 40.16, 29.17 and 18.99%, respectively. Treatment of soil with four nematicides caused appreciable reduction in the incidence of all three categories of Ufra. Furadan 5G caused significant reduction in UI and UII, whereas Curatarr 5G and Edfuran 5G gave significant reduction in UII and UIII as compared to control-1. Only Cemifuran 5G significantly reduced the incidence of UI, UII, UIII compared to control-1 (Table 3).
Grain yield per plot was 1233.0 g when 100% healthy seedlings were planted. The yield was reduced to 53.3 g/plot when infected seedlings were planted without application of any nematicides. Application of Furadan 5G, Curatarr 5G and Cemifuran 5G gave significant increase in grain yield over control-1. Per plot grain yield under three nematicides was 216.7, 350.00 and 566.7 g, respectively. The efficacy of Curatarr and Cemifuran to reduce Ufra incidence was not significantly different. The highest yield increase was achieved with Cemifuran, which was followed by Curatarr, Furadan and Edfuran (Table 3).
Experiment-4&5: Influence of level of infected seedling on the efficacy of Furadan 5G to control Ufra disease of rice under pot and field conditions
Under pot culture conditions, incidence of Ufra disease of rice was not found in pots planted with 100% healthy seedlings and received no nematicide. In pots planted with 100% infected seedlings without Furadan 5G (control) showed 63.10, 21.51 and 13.03% incidence of UI, UII and UIII, respectively. Application of Furadan 5G at 15 kg/ha reduced incidence of UI, UII and UIII to 9.79-3.74, 15.50-14.35 and 17.40-25.74% respectively at 25, 50, 75 and 100% infected seedling. The reduction was significant in case of only UI. The highest reduction was observed at 75% of infected seedlings, which was followed by 50, 25 and 100% infected seedlings. The reason of such results may be due to high levels of incidence of UI and UII and there was a few plants left to develop symptoms of UIII. The highest grain yield of 245 g/pot was recorded from control where 100% healthy seedling was planted and Furadan 5G was applied. On the other hand, the lowest yield of 121 g/pot was harvested when 100% infected seedlings were planted but nematicide was not applied. The yield increased significantly over control when 25-75% infected seedlings were planted and treated with Furadan 5G (Table 4).
Under field conditions, the incidence of UI, UII and UIII was 76.10, 14.90 and 9.00%, respectively when 100% Ufra infected seedlings were planted but the nematicide was not applied (control). Application of Furadan 5G gave significant reduction over control in only UI in plots planted with 25-100% infected seedlings. The differences in reduction of UI at different levels of infected seedlings were not significant. Incidence of UII was reduced due to nematicide application only when 0 and 25% infected seedlings were planted. The incidence of UIII was statistically similar at all levels of infected seedlings and when Furadan 5G was applied. The highest grain yield of 510 g/plot was obtained when 100% healthy seedlings were planted and plots were treated with Furadan 5G. The lowest yield of 52 g/plot was recorded from plots planted with 100% infected seedling in spite of application of Furadan 5G. The grain yield in plots planted with 25-100% infected seedlings was statistically similar. The grain yield was reduced gradually with the increase in incidence of Ufra (Table 4).
Results of five experiments conducted under the present study reveal that Ufra disease of rice caused by D. angustus can be controlled effectively by applying nematicides just before or after transplanting of seedlings. Application of Brifun 5g, Curatarr 5G, Cemifuran 5G, and Furadan 5g caused reduction in the incidence of Ufra of rice seedlings. The highest reduction was obtained with Cemifuran, which was followed by Furadan 5G. Other investigators tested Edfuran 5G, Curatarr 5G, Cemifuran 5G and Furadan 5 g against Ufra disease of rice under field and pot conditions and similar results were recorded (Rahman and Miah 1991). In the present study, Cemifuran 5G was noted as the best nematicide followed by Furadan 5G. The nematicide is more effective at low level of infected seedling. The nematicide is also effective if it is applied at early stage of infection. Appearance of Ufra in plots having 100% healthy seedlings might be due to transmission of nematodes from infected plot due to rain splash. Effectiveness of nematicides including some of them tested in the present study was also evaluated by many other researchers and found similar results. Salim Miah et al. (2003), Deb Anand Das (2004) and Latif et al. (2013) reported that application of formulated products of Carbofuran, Phanamiphos, Isazopos (Brifur5G, Curatarr 5G; Furadan 5G) are effective to control Ufra disease of rice. Soil incorporation of Carbofuran at 30 kg a.i. /ha has been reported to recover the Ufra infested plants or to reduce the disease incidence (Sein 1977). Field application of Furadan 3G is effective to control Ufra disease by 82%. Its application in soil at 1.0 kg a.i. /ha in an infested field increased yield by 105% (Rahman et al. 1981). Rahman and Miah (1985, 1991, 1992) observed that application of Carbofuran gave reduction in Ufra of rice.
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