POSTHARVEST DISEASES OF SELECTED FRUITS IN THE WHOLESALE MARKET OF DHAKA

Authors: M. S. M. Chowdhury, N. Sultana, G. Mostofa, B. Kundu and M. Rashid

Abstract

S. M. Chowdhury, N. Sultana, G. Mostofa, B. Kundu and M. Rashid. 2014. Postharvest diseases of selected fruits in the wholesale market of Dhaka. Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol. 30 (1&2): 13-16.

A survey was conducted in three wholesale fruit market in Dhaka city during October 2012 to September 2013 to record postharvest diseases of mango, guava, papaya and jujube fruits collected from different parts of the country. The highest incidence and severity of postharvest diseases of the fruits were recorded in September, March, August and March, whereas the lowest incidence and severity were found in May, November, June and January, respectively. The post harvest diseases recorded during the survey from four fruits were anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), Fusarium rot (Fusarium sp.), Rhizopus rot (Rhizopus stolonifer), Aspergillus rot (Aspergillus flavus), stem end rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae), Stemphylium blight (Stemphylium sp.), scab (Pestalotiopsis psidii), Alternaria fruit rot (Alternaria alternata) and Phomopsis rot (Phomopsis sp.).

 

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INTRODUCTION

In Bangladesh, different types fruits of diverse origins are cultivated in the country. Bangladesh produces 4.22 million tones of fruits annually from 0.15 million hectares of land (Anon. 2010). Mango, banana, jackfruit, pineapple, papaya, litchi, jujube and guava are the major fruits of the country, which can contribute in the economy and nutrition sector significantly (Rahim 2009). Approximately one third of all fresh fruits and vegetables are lost before it reaches consumers (Kader 2005). Estimated post-harvest losses in fresh fruits and vegetables are 5 to 35% in developed countries and 20 to 50% in developing countries (Kader 2002). Postharvest decay is the main reason for limiting the extension of storage and shelf life of fruits in Bangladesh. Main factors responsible for postharvest loss of fresh fruits are mechanical damage, spoilage by fungi, bacteria, insects, other microorganisms and physiological deterioration (Choudhury 2006). Mango, papaya (Ploetz et al. 1994), guava (Hossain and Meah 1992, Rahman et al. 2003) and jujube (Rai and Mamatha 2005) are attacked by a number of pathogens from bloom to harvest and in storage which cause considerably deteriorate the fruit quality. The post-harvest pathogens like Colletotrichum gloeo-sporioides, Botryodiplodia theo-bromae, Alternaria, Phomopsis, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Stemphylium, Pestalotiopsis attack the fruits from fruit set till harvest and cause considerable damage to fruit production and quality. The viable technologies need to be developed to reduce such postharvest losses caused by pre-harvest diseases. Before development of any management strategy, it is necessary to identify diseases.

In view of the facts, a survey was conducted to identify postharvest diseases of selected fruits occur in wholesale market.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Four majors fruits of Bangladesh namely mango, papaya, guava and jujube were selected for the study. The survey was conducted in wholesale markets of Kawran Bazar, Zatrabari and Mirpur in Dhaka city during October, 2012 to September, 2013. Fruits were collected by the wholesaler from various parts of the country. One thousand infected fruit samples of each fruit were obtained from the wholesaler and brought to the Disease Diagnostic Laboratory of Plant Pathology Department, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka. The specimens were checked carefully and associated symptoms were recorded. The diseases were identified based on associated symptoms. Percentage of infected fruits was computed based on total number of fruits collected from the market according. Percent disease incidence (Rai and Mamatha 2005) and disease severity (Johnston 2000) were calculated using standard formulae. The formulae are shown below:

                               Number of diseased fruit

Fruit infection % = —————————————X100

                            Total number of fruits checked

                        Number of diseased fruit in a consignment

Disease incidence% = ———————————————-X100

                          Total number of fruits in same  consignment

                             Diseased area of fruit surface

Disease severity % = ————————————X100

                                 Total area of fruits surface

The collected data were analylized statistically for analysis of variance and means were compared using MSTAT-C computer program.

Causal fungi of the diseases were isolated and identified. For isolation of causal organism(s), 10 specimens of each fruits having similar symptoms were selected from collected samples from each location and put in sterilized polythene bags. The specimens were washed thoroughly under running tap water, surface sterilized with 5.00% NaOCl solution and rinsed in sterile water. The diseased parts were cut into small pieces and placed on three layers of moist blotting paper in a Petri dish and another set was placed in Petri dishes containing potato dextrose (PDA) medium. Both sets were incubated in an incubator at 22±2C for 7 days under 12 hour /12 hour alternate cycles of near ultra violet (NUV) light and darkness. After 8 days of incubation, the fungi grown from the specimens were transferred to PDA in Petri dishes and purified following hypal tip culture method. The pure culture was grown on PDA and identified based on the colony character and morphological characters of fruiting bodies, spores or conidia under a compound microscope. The pathogens thus recorded were identified following the keys of Mathur and Kongsdal (2003).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

During the survey, different postharvest diseases of fruit specimens collected from wholesale market of Dhaka were identified. The frequently occurring diseases were anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem end rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Fusarium rot (Fusarium sp.) of mango; anthracnose, Rhizopus rot (Rhizopus stolonifer), Fusarium rot (Fusarium sp.), stem end rot and Aspergillus rot (Rhizopus stolonifer) of papaya; anthracnose and scab of guava; Phomopsis rot, Stemphylium blight, Rhizopus rot, anthracnose and Alternaria fruit rot of jujube. Nine pathogens viz. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Botryo-diplodia theobromae, Stemphylium sp., Pestalo-tiopsis psidii, Alternaria alternata and Phomopsis sp. were identified from collected fruits of mango, papaya, guava and jujube (Table 1).

Incidence and severity of postharvest diseases of mango: Incidence and severity of anthracnose stem end rot and Fusarium rot of mango varied appreciably from one month to another. In case of anthracnose, the highest incidence and severity were recorded in the month of September 2013 whereas the lowest incidence and severity were recorded in the month of May 2013. Incidence and severity were the maximal in the month of September, 2013 whereas the lowest incidence and severity were found in the month of May 2013. In case of Fusarium rot the highest incidence and severity were observed in September 2013 and the lowest incidence was recorded in the month of June 2013 and the lowest severity was recorded in the month of May 2013 which was statistically similar to of July 2013 (Table 2).

Incidence and severity of postharvest diseases of papaya: Incidence and severity of anthracnose, Rhizopus rot, Fusarium rot, stem end rot and Aspergillus rot of papaya varied considerably from one month to of March followed by February 2013. The incidence and severity recorded in the month of February were significantly higher compared to other months except March 2013. Their lowest incidence as well as was found in the month of November followed by December 2012  (Table 3).

postharvest-diseases-of-selected-fruits-in-the-wholesale-market-of-dhaka-2

 Incidence and severity of postharvest diseases of guava: The highest incidence and severity of anthracnose and scab of guava were the maximal in the month of August followed by July and June 2013. Incidence anthracnose recorded in the month of June and July was statistically similar but significantly higher compared to August. Severity of anthracnose and incidence as well as severity of scab varied significantly from one month to another (Table 4).

Incidence and severity of postharvest diseases of jujube: The highest incidence and severity of Phomopsis rot, Stemphylium blight, Rhizopus rot, anthracnose and Alternaria fruit rot were recorded in the month of March followed by February and January 2013. Their differences were significant from one month to another except incidence of anthracnose which was statistically similar in the month of January and February (Table 5).

Fruit species under study had considerable amount of infection by pathogens viz. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus  stolonifer,  Aspergillus  flavus,   Botryo-

diplodia theobromae, Stemphylium sp., Pestalotiopsis psidii, Phomopsis sp. and Alternaria alternata. This is no doubt an alarming situation for the economy of the country. Although chemicals are effective to reduce the incidence of postharvest diseases, this method is discouraged or even discarded in recent years due to economic, environ-ment and health concerns.  Interest in heat treatments waned with the development of chemical fumigants, which could be applied cheaply and easily. Similar diseases have also been recorded by other investi-gators. Dey et al. (2007) reported that anthracnose, stem end rot and fruit rot are common and destructive diseases of fruits in Bangladesh. Anthracnose was recognized as the most important postharvest fruit disease in the country (Rahman et al. 2003, Awasthi et al. 2005).

 

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LITERATURE CITED

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Dey, T., Ayub, K., Mortuza, G. and Sultana, N. 2007. Research on vegetables, spices and fruits disease management at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute. BARI,              Joydebpur, Gazipur. pp. 72-85.

Hossain, M. S. and Meah, M. B. 1992. Prevalence and control of guava fruit anthracnose. Trop. Pest Manag. 38: 181-185.

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Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207.
Email: mamun_1961@yahoo.com

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