SURVEY, COLLECTION AND VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY GROUP ANALYSIS AND DISTRIBUTION OF Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubence OF BANANA IN BANGLADESH

Authors: M. Sakhawat Hossain1, M S Nahar2 and M G Saha3

Abstract

A survey, collection and characterization of banana Fusarium wilt disease was undertaken to know the Fusarium wilt status in Bangladesh. Twelve districts were selected for the survey that covers most of the Agro-Ecological zones in Bangladesh. Banana gardens in each district were randomly selected for survey and sample collection. Amritsagor, Sabri, Chapa, Kabri, Bangla kola, Plantain varieties and an Indigenous (seeded) cultivar were included in the survey. Samples were also collected from infected plants grown on the homesteads and roadside. Totally, 61 disease samples were collected from 40 upazilas of twelve districts. Vegetative Compatibility Group (VCG) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) was divided into Clade A and Clade B. Clade A included lineage I & II (VCG 0126 & 01219), lineage IV (VCG 01220) and lineage V (VCG 0120/15, 0121 and 01213/16). Clade B included lineage VI (VCG 0124/5, 0128, 01220 and 0124/01222) and lineage VII (VCG 013, 01217 and 01218). The rest of the isolates were under vegetatively incompatible or non pathogenic or other than F. oxysporum. Thirty five Foc isolates collected from Bangla kola, Chapa, Indigenus, Plantain and Sabri were grouped in VCG 0124/5. One Foc isolate collected from Sabri was in VCG 0123 and two Foc isolates collected from Chapa were in VCG 0128. Two Foc isolates, one from Chapa and the other from Sabri were grouped in VCG 01217. Ten Foc isolates, one from Plantain and nine from Sabri were grouped in VCG 01220. Thirty five isolates of VCG 0124/5, one of VCG 0124/22, ten of VCG 01220 and two of VCG 01217 were under Foc Race 1. On the other hand, one isolate of VCG 0123 and two isolates of VCG 128 were under Foc Race 2. No TR4 Race was recorded in Bangladesh

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INTRODUCTION

There are a number of banana varieties cultivated in Bangladesh. Among them Amritsagar, Sabri, Chapa, Kabri and Bangla kola; and different Plantain cultivars are cultivated commercially. There are some other popular banana cultivars like BARI Kola-1, Mehersagar, Dudsagar, Agniswar, Genasundari, Kanaibashi, Basrai, Binisuta etc. are also cultivated in small scale in different areas of the country. Different wild type (seeded) cultivars grown in the homesteads, roadside and forests are also known to have some popularity because of their sweet taste and medicinal value. Plantain has great demand during the lean period of vegetable from May to October (Satter & Hoque 2004). The major constraint of banana production in the region is the occurrence of banana diseases, particularly wilt (also known as the Panama disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubence (Meah & Khan 1987, Hossain & Rashid 1999). The pathogen is the most devastating one affecting commercial and subsistence banana production throughout the banana producing areas of the world (Ploetz 2005). The disease is ranked as one of the top six important plant diseases in the world (Ploetz & Pegg 1997)

The disease almost destroyed the banana export industry in Central America during the 1950’s (Stover 1972). Recently, Cavendish cultivars planted on a large scale in South-East Asia are succumbing to F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (TR4) (Ploetz & Pegg 2000). Since its appearance, TR4 has caused severe damage to Cavendish cultivars in Malaysia, Indonesia, South China, the Philippines and the Northern Territory of Australia (Ploetz 2006, Molina et al. 2009, Buddenhagen 2009). Garcia-Bastidas et al. (2014) had reported TR4 in Cavendish bananas in Jordan, with 80% of the Jordan Valley production area affected by Fusarium wilt, and 20-80% of the plants affected in different farms. TR4 first reported in Cavendish in Pakistan in 2012 and Lebanon in 2013. The pathogen isolate resembled F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense and was diagnosed as vegetatively compatible Group (VCG) 01213 conforming with TR4 race (Garcia-Bastidas et al. 2014, Leslie and Summerell 2006, Ploetz 2006). The disease is a major threat to banana farms because the fungus has the ability to survive in the soil as a saprophyte for up to 30 years, primarily because of its durable quiescent spores called chlamydospores.

Foc Races 1 and 2 have been identified in most of the banana-growing countries of Asia; however, the more virulent variant Foc TR4 has also been found to exist in this region. The ‘Cavendish’ variety is commonly planted because of its resistance to Foc Race 1; however, all local banana varieties commonly planted by small-scale farmers may be susceptible to TR4. Considerable damage by Foc TR4 to Cavendish has been observed in Southeast Asia and the northern territories of Australia. However, the specific geographic distribution and host-pathogen interaction of the disease is still unknown, thus making it difficult to develop effective management and preventive strategies to combat the spread of the disease in this region. To address the situation, information on the extent of spread of Fusarium wilt is needed. For this, a preliminary survey was conducted to know the incidence of Fusarium wilt in different banana-growing areas in Bangladesh and to identify the Foc races present in surveyed areas through the Vegetative Compatibility Group (VCG) analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Twelve districts including all banana growing regions of Bangladesh were selected to survey for the occurrence of Fusarium wilt. Banana gardens in each district were randomly selected for survey and sample collection. Almost all commercial banana and plantain varieties and an Indigenous (seeded) cultivar were included under the survey. Samples were also collected from infected banana and plantain plants grown on the homesteads, and roadside. Samples were taken from the part as close to the center of the pseudostem of the banana plants showing symptoms of Fusarium wilt infection. Specimens were taken from the lowest pseudostem tissue with continuous vascular discoloration but not from the areas with decayed tissues.

A total of sixty one samples were collected from 40 Upazillas (Hossain et al. 2007). Among them, 7 samples were collected from Rajshahi, 6 from Jessore (Greater), 5 from Jamalpur, 6 from Bogra, 4 from Gaibanda, 11 from Barisal, 7 from Rangpur, 1 from Sylhet, 6 from Pabna, 3 from Greater Dhaka (Narsingdi and Gazipur), 2 from Rangamati (Chittagong Hill Tract) and 3 from Dinajpur districts (Table 1). While 36 (59%), 10 (16%), 6 (10%), 7 (11%) and 2 (3%) isolates were collected from Sabri, Plantain, Indigenous, Chapa and Bangla kola, respectively (Table 2). During survey, number of samples, date of collection, variety of the host plant (local name), type of field from where the sample was collected (i.e., garden, plantation, village, or others) and location (village name, town, province, region) were recorded. All collected samples were wrapped in sterilized blotting paper and dried to prevent bacterial infection, and sent to FABI, South Africa for VCG analysis (Table 3).  FABI examined the samples for VCG analysis during May, 2016 and made geographical Fusarium wilt disease map in Bangladesh.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The association between vegetative compatibility group (VCG), cultivars and country of occurrence for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubence  was divided into Clade A and Clade B. Clade A included lineage I & II (VCG 0126 & 01219), lineage IV (VCG 01220) and lineage V (VCG 0120/15, 0121 and 01213/16). On the other hand Clade B included lineage VI (VCG 0124/5, 0128, 01220 and 0124/01222) and lineage VII (VCG 013, 01217 and 01218). Among sixty one Foc isolates, 79% were categorized under Clade B and lineage VI [0124/5 (58%), 0128 (3%), 01220 (16%) and 0124/01222(2%)] and 5% were under Clade B and Lineage VII [0123 (1%) and 01217 (4%)]. The other 16% isolates were under vegetatively incompatible or non pathogenic or other than  F. oxysporum (Molina et al. 2009, Somrith et al. 2011, Riska et al. 2012, Li et al. 2011) (Table 4).

Thirty five Foc isolates collected from Bangla kola (2), Chapa (4), Indigenus (4), Plantain (6) and Sabri (35) were grouped in VCG 0124/5. One Foc isolate collected from Sabri was in VCG 0123 and two Foc isolates collected from Chapa were in VCG 0128. Two Foc isolates, one from Chapa and the other from Sabri were grouped in VCG 01217. Ten Foc isolates, one from Plantain and nine from Sabri were grouped in VCG 01220 (Table 5). A diverse VCG of Foc isolates were associated with our most popular variety Sabri.

Distribution of VCG of Foc isolates in map is shown in Fig.1. Thirty five isolates of VCG 0124/5, one of VCG 0124/22, ten of VCG 01220 and two of VCG 01217 were under Foc Race 1. On the other hand, one isolate of VCG 0123 and two isolates of VCG 128 were under Foc Race 2.  None of the isolates was found under Foc Race 4 or TR 4. However TR 4 was identified in India. Therefore it is necessary to take control measure or necessary step to prevent the entrance of this devastating isolate.

 

 

Table 1. Fusarium wilt survey sites with geographical location, number of samples and name of infected banana varieties and plantain

 

District Sample # Upazilla GPS reading (Latitude, longitude) Altitude (Meter) Banana variety and plantain
Plantain Sabri Indigenous Chapa Bangla kola
Rajshahi (Greater) 1 Puthia N 24° 28’ 51.2“, E 88° 51’ 31.3“ 20 1
2 Puthia N 24° 23’ 34.9“, E 88° 51’ 21.0“ 20 1
3 Durgapur N 24° 26’ 58.6“, E 88° 50’ 34.4“ 20 1
4 Paba N 24° 25’ 25.3“, E 88° 36’ 36.3“ 20 1
5 Paba N 24° 26’ 27.4“, E 88° 36’ 30.6“ 20 1
6 Paba N 24° 25’ 26.2“, E  88° 36’ 33.3“ 20 1
7 Boalia N 24° 23’ 26.3“, E 88° 36’ 28.6“ 20 1
Jessore (Greater) 8 Kaligonj (Jhenidah) N 23° 22’ 12.8“, E  89° 04’ 12.8“ 7 1
9 Kaligonj N 23° 18’ 02.8“, E  89° 09’ 12.5“ 7 1
10 Jhenidah N 23° 29’ 40.7“, E  89° 09’ 13.7“ 7 1
11 Kaligonj N 23° 18’ 02.8“, E  89° 09’ 12.5“ 7 1
12 Jhenidah N 23° 32’ 48.7“, E  89° 07’ 18.4“ 7 1
13 Chuadanga N 23° 29’ 16.8“, E  88° 50’ 07.5“ 7.5 1
Jamalpur 14 Malanda N 24° 58’ 15.2“, E 89° 51’ 11.9“ 20 1
15 Islampur N 25° 07’ 10.2“, E 89° 46’ 06.5“ 20 1
16 Dewangonj N 25° 08’ 00.3“, E 89° 46’ 27.7“ 20 1
17 Islampur N 25° 07’ 10.3“, E 89° 46’ 06.5“ 20 1
Bogra 18 Shibgonj N 24° 58’ 03.8“, E 89° 21’ 45.3“ 20 1
19 Shibgonj N 24° 55’ 03.8“, E 89° 21’ 44.3“ 20 1
20 Gabtali N 24° 59’ 24.1“, E 89° 22’ 17.1“ 20 1
21 Shibgonj N 24° 59’ 55.9“, E 89° 22’ 18.1“ 20 1
22 Shibgonj N 24° 59’ 55.3“, E 89° 22’ 13.1“ 20 1
23 Shibgonj N 25° 01’ 25.8“, E 89° 19’ 41.9“ 20 1
Gaibandah 24 Gabindagonj N 24° 59’ 55.3“, E 89° 22’ 18.0“ 20 1
25 Gabindagonj N 25° 05’ 04.2“, E 89° 22’ 46.3“ 20 1
26 Gabindagonj N 25° 12’ 31.5“, E 89° 19’ 38.5“ 22 1
27 Gabindagonj N 25° 13’ 22.5“, E 89° 19’ 15.5“ 22 1
Barisal 28 Babugonj N 22° 23’ 40.0“, E 90° 15’ 13.4“ 4 1
29 Babugonj N 22° 48’ 40.6“, E 90° 19’ 42.0“ 4 1
30 Babugonj N 22° 45’ 43.2“, E 90° 16’ 42.5“ 4 1
31 Babugonj N 22° 47’ 11.0“, E 90° 17’ 32.6“ 4 1
32 Babugonj N 22° 46’ 15.2“, E090° 18’ 30.0“ 4 1
33 Babugonj N 22° 43’ 22.5“, E 90° 18’ 17.2“ 4 1
34 Babugonj N 22° 43’ 25.1“, E 90° 18’ 19.9“ 4 1
35 Babugonj N 22° 42’ 13.3“, E 90° 18’ 12.5“ 4 1
36 Babugonj N 22° 39’ 21.2“, E 90° 18’ 21.8“ 4 1
37 Babugonj N 22° 42’ 20.2“, E 90° 18’ 22.5“ 4 1
38 Babugonj N 22° 29’ 41.2“, E 90° 15’ 11.5“ 4 1
Rangpur 39 Mithapukur N 25° 31’ 24.4“, E 89° 08’ 52.2“ 32 1
40 Mithapukur N 25° 31’ 20.4“, E 89° 08’ 55 .2“ 32 1
41 Mithapukur N 25° 31’ 15.4“, E 89° 08’ 46.2“ 32 1
42 Mithapukur N 25° 31’ 32.4“, E 89° 08’ 16.2“ 32 1
43 Mithapukur N 25° 31’ 18.1“, E 89° 08’ 39.0“ 32 1
44 Mithapukur N 25° 34’ 30.7“, E 89° 15’ 27.6“ 32 1
45 Pirgonj N 25° 27’ 34.2“, E 89° 17’ 34.5“ 31 1
46 Pirgonj N 25° 27’ 24.2“, E 89° 17’ 54.5“ 31 1
Sylhet 47 Jaintiapur N 25° 09’ 43.0“, E 92° 05’ 52.0“ 36 1
Pabna 48 Ishurdi N 24° 05’ 52.5“, E 89° 06’ 03.7“ 16 1
49 Ishurdi N 24° 04’ 24.3“, E 89° 03’ 51.3“ 16 1
50 Ishurdi N 24° 04’ 26.7“, E 89° 03’ 52.9“ 16 1
51 Ishurdi N 24° 04’ 26.7“, E 89° 03’ 52.9“
Vol. 32, No. 1 & 2, 2016    3

16

1
52 Ishurdi N 24° 04’ 17.0“, E 89° 02’ 59.7“ 16 1
53 Ishurdi N 24° 04’ 17.0“, E 89° 02’ 52.9“ 16 1
Dhaka (Narsingdi &

Gazipur)

54 Monohardi N 24° 06’ 28.0“, E 90° 44’ 17.0“ 9 1
55 Monohardi N 24° 06’ 18.0“, E 90° 44’ 15.6“ 9 1
56 Shibpur N 24° 04’ 34.3“, E 90° 43’ 56.9“ 9 1
Rangamati (Chittagong Hill Tract) 57 Kaptai N 22° 27’ 36.2“, E 92° 09’ 15.2“ 64 1
58 Kaptai N 22° 27’ 23.6“, E 92° 09’ 02.9“ 35 1
Dinajpur 59 Kaharul N 25° 48’ 03.0“, E 88° 40’ 43.2“ 37 1
60 Kaharul N 25° 18’ 13.0“, E 88° 39’ 22.5“ 37 1
61 Kaharul N 25° 44’ 52.1“, E 88° 40’ 13.2“ 37 1
Total 10 36 6 7 2

 

Table 2. The Name, genome, number and percentage infected of Banana Varieties

 

Name of Varieties Genome Number of sample collected Percentage on total sample
Bangla kola AB 2 3.28
Chapa AAB 7 11.48
Indigenous 6 9.84
Plantain 10 16.39
Sabri AAB 36 59.02
Total 61 100.00

 

Table 3. Fusarium Wilt Survey Sites, number of collected Samples and infected banana varieties in Bangladesh

 

Sl.No Survey districts Visit sites (Upazilla) Total sample Sample code Banana Varieties Infected
1. Rajshahi Putia Durgapur Paba 7 Sample # 1-7 Plantain, Sabri and Indigenous (Seeded)
2. Jessore (Greater) Jhenidah,  Sadar, Kaligonj,

Chuadanga, Jibannagar, Chowgachha

6 Sample # 8-13 Plantain, Sabri and Indigenous (Seeded)
3. Jamalpur Islampur, Dewangonj,

Melandah Madhupur, Sadar

5  Sample # 13-17 Plantain, Sabri and Indigenous (Seeded)
4. Bogra Gabtali, Sadar

Shibgonj

6 Sample # 18-23 Sabri and Chapa
5. Gaibanda Potashbari, Gobindahgonj, Sonatola 4 Sample # 24-27 Sabri, Plantain
6. Barisal Babugonj, Gowrnadi, Banaripara, Uzirpur 11 Sample # 28-38  Sabri
7. Rangpur Pirgonj, Sadar, Mithapukur, 7 Sample #  39-46 Sabri and Chapa
8. Sylhet Jaintapur, Srimongal, 1 Sample #  47 Indigenous (Seeded)
9. Pabna Ishurdi, Veramara, Chatmahar, 6 Sample #  48-53 Sabri
10. Greater Dhaka (Narsingdi and Gazipur ) Monohardi Shibpur, Joydebpur 3 Sample #  54-56 Sabri
11. Rangamati (Chittagong Hill Tract) Kaptai, Razasthali 2  Sample# 57-58 Bangla kola
12. Dinajpur Kaharul, Birgonj, Khanshama 3 Sample # 59-61 Sabri
  Grand total

 

40 Upazilla 61 Sample # 1 – 61 Five varieties
4  Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol.

 

Table 4: Vegetative compatibility group (VCG) and lineage distribution of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense isolates in Asia (Molina et al., 2008; Somrith et al., 2011; Riska et al., 2012; Li et al., 2011)

VCG
Clade A B
Lineage I and II IV V VI VII
Country 0126 01219 0122 0120/ 15 0121 01213/ 16 0124/5 0128 01220 0124/01222 0123 01217 01218 01221 PN/NP/ VIC1 OF2 Total
Bangladesh 35 2 10 1 1 2 8 2 61

1Possibly novel Foc VCGs, non-pathogenic and vegetatively incompatible F. oxysporum

2Fusarium spp. other than F. oxysporum

 

Table 5: The association between vegetative compatibility group, cultivars and country of occurrence for Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

Country Cultivar genotypes 0123 0124/5 0128 01217 01220 0124/01222 PN/NP/ VIC1 Total
Bangladesh Bangla kola 2 2
Chapa 4 2 1 7
Indigenous 4 2 6
Plantain 6 1 3 10
Sabri 1 19 1 9 1 5 36
Total 1 35 2 2 10 1 10 61

1Possibile novel VCG of Foc, non-pathogenic or vegetatively incompatible isolates of F. oxysporum and Fusarium spp. other than F. oxysporum.

 

Vol. 32, No. 1 & 2, 2016    5

Fig.  1. Circle of various color indicating the distribution of VCG of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Bangladesh

 

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1Director, 2Principal Scientific Officer &3 Chief Scientific Officer, Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh

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